Trace elements in human nutrition

Michael T Deans and Cantab

A serendipitous observation, confirmed by recent reports of ice XIc, suggested ice crystallizing in liquid nitrogen is proton ordered. It undergoes a ferroelectric phase transition at 72 K, releasing latent energy as wavelength λ ~ 4μ infrared laser light. Ice formed in polar regions during a primordial ice age emitted such light; polarised by multiple reflection it photophosphorylated deoxynucleotides on equatorial waters, creating chiral ‘transport DNA’, tDNA. F tDNAs embedded in the membranes of proto-cells charged by lightning formed H-bond lined pores. Absorbing ~ 4μ light, they created an electric field which actively transported charged carrier-substrate complexes. A replicate tDNA signalled life’s origin. I discuss nine independent metabolic pathways consistent with medical, veterinary and pharmaceutical data. In each case, trace element deficient diets disable active transport and supplements could prevent consequent mental and physical maladies. 64 tDNAs selected by ‘differentiation DNAs’, dDNAs, corresponding to tRNA selection by mRNAs in protein synthesis, balance cell diets. Inherited tDNAs guide the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of common maladies. ‘Minions’, comprising 189 anti-parallel β-sheet hairpin units holding nine DNA base pairs flat, evolved to pack chromosomal DNA for efficient replication. They have roles in metabolic control, their oscillating H-bond arrays account for biological clocks and serve as chips in our brains. Biological energy coupling, exemplified by sarcomeres changing shape to form ½-wave resonant cavities for λ in striated muscle contraction, could be mimicked for nitrogen fixation. Protons accelerated along minion tunnels drive nuclear fusion; copying that might solve the current energy and pollution crisis.

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